SALT REMEDIATION, METALS REMEDIATION, PCE REMEDIATION, AND TCE REMEDIATION PERFORMED IN SITU
Whether it’s salt, metals or chlorinated hydrocarbons remediation, GEE’s revolutionary EK3 Electrokinetic Remediation technology can remediate a host of contaminants in situ.
EK3 is a cost-effective and proven technology for in situ remediation of soil and groundwater with little environmental disturbance. In addition, EK3 can achieve results in low permeable soil, such as clay. For an in-depth look into EK3, check out our white papers.
HOW EK3 WORKS
EK3, electrokinetic remediation is a process in which a low voltage, direct current electric field is applied across a section of contaminated soil in order to move and extract contaminants. The resulting electrokinetic phenomena displace ions and water soluble pollutants, disturbing the equilibrium between the solid and liquid phase components of the formation.
The result is desorbtion of cations (positively charged ions) or anions (negatively charged ions) by ion exchange from the solid phase to the liquid phase, making the contaminant mobile.
THE FOUR MAIN PRINCIPLES OF EK3
Th four main principles behind EK3 include:
- Electroosmosis is the uniform movement of water and contaminants from the anode (positive electrode) to the cathode (negative electrode). This causes net flow from the anode to the cathode.
- Electromigration involves the movement of ions towards their respective electrodes. When an electric field is created, molecules are separated into their positive and negative ions The electrical field pulls the free positive ions in the direction of the negative electrode, and the free negative ions in the direction of the positive electrode. This creates a basic plume at the negative electrode and an acidic plume at the positive electrode.
- Electrophoresis occurs due to the fact that all dispersed particles will almost certainly have an electric surface charge on them. This charge can be manipulated through the application of an electrical field, and allow these charged particles to be moved through a substance.
- Electrical Resistive Heating occurs through the application of DC (direct current) power. The electrically resistive soil heating can be harnessed to assist in the application of production and extraction techniques. This is particularly true in areas with low permeability.
Different key principles of EK3 can be involved in the remediation of different contaminants. For example, key principles of salt and metal remediation are the electromigration and electroosmosis, where as hydrocarbon remediation relies on all four principles.
- EK3 is an in situ treatment system that uses low-voltage direct current (DC) for soil and ground water remediation.
- EK3 can be used to treat soils contaminated with salt, metals, nitrates, chlorides, sulfate BTEX aromatics, chlorinated hydrocarbons (DNAPL), diesel and fuel oil, light PAH, phenol and similar pollutants.
- For salt remediation EK3:
- Separates sodium (Na) and chloride (Cl) into their basic charged forms (positive for Na and negative for Cl).
- Negatively-charged electrodes then attract all the Na+ ions.
- Conversely, positively-charged electrodes attract the Cl- ions.
- Once the ions are collected and reach a critical concentration on the electrodes, they are extracted and treated above ground, quickly and easily.
- EK3 can remediate large areas at any depth, quickly.
- For salt contamination, EK3 is the only product in the world that can remediate them cost-effectively in situ.
- EK3 is a proven technology.
- Can remediate in low permeability soils (such as clay)—thus increasing the applications and uses.
- Remediation is done in situ – effectively cutting out onerous "dig and dump" procedures.
- Little disturbance to affected area and surroundings.
- Costs the same or less than "dig and dump" process.
- Flare Pits
- Drilling Waste Site
- Other spills such as flowline/pipeline breaks
- Salt storage yards
- Former Manufactured Gas Plants (FMGPs)
- Asphalt Plants
- Upstream Oil and Gas Industry such as fefineries, oil and gas drilling sites, oil and gas battery sites, flare pits and other spills.
- Downstream Oil and Gas Industry such as gas stations and bulk fuel storage facilities.
- Former Steel and Coke Plants
- Manufacturing Facilities
- Mining: cyanide and mercury contaminations.
- Industrial Practices such as wastewater full of lead, zinc, copper and nickel
ELECTRO-OSMOSIS PERFORMANCE OVER A RANGE OF SOILS